Mori Arinori was a Satsuma samurai who went to England to study in 1865. He became a disciple of Thomas Lake Harris, who had founded the Brotherhood of Life. Mori converted to Christianity and went with Harris to New York. After the Meiji restoration he returned to Japan. In 1869 Mori suggested making sword-wearing for samurai optional; he was attacked, but he survived the wounds. From 1871 to 1873 he was ambassador to Washington, where he studied education. He favored equal rights in marriage for women and asked Fukuzawa to revise the marriage ceremony. His suggestion to replace the Japanese language with English made him unpopular. Mori organized Japan’s first commercial college in 1875. He was ambassador to China and then to England. By 1875 Japan had about 20,000 primary schools, and a survey found that 40% met in Buddhist temples, 33% in private homes, and 18% in new buildings. More than 6,000 students were in 156 English-language schools.


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