In 1950, a European political space existed, if only as a very primitive site of international governance. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union governs in an ever-growing number of policy domains. Increasingly dense networks of transnational actors representing electorates, member state governments, firms, and specialized interests operate in arenas that are best understood as supranational. At the same time, the capacity of European organizations – the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the European Court of Justice – to make authoritative pol ...


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