to prevent future ethical abuses; instead, they contend, EPA should totally reject ethically tainted research data. This argument charges that deriving societal benefits from unethical research retrospectively legitimizes such research and undermines the ethical principles discussed earlier in this chapter. Indeed, this argument holds that accepting the benefits of such research involves society in a kind of symbolic approval of and complicity in the unethical research, even after the fact. This line of reasoning tends to support an absolute renunciation of the benefits of knowledge gained through unethical research.


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