ADVANTAGES

For a player to be coerced by the actions of others, he necessarily must feel that a large fraction--at least something close to a majority--of the men with whom he is in competition for a job are themselves assuredly using the sorts of substances he is contemplating. If there are only a few men at most (as a percentage) with whom he is in direct competition, here meaning others in the organization, then there is scarcely any need for him to try artificial augmentation just to remain in fair competition. Such a man might turn to PEDs anyway, on the ground that using them would give him a special leg up, but that is not the "coercion" we are talking about--that sort of coercion requires that the man feel that he cannot compete equally unless he tries PEDs.

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