One powerful variable Milgram manipulated was . In this version of the experiment, subjects ran in groups of three at a time. Two subjects were confederates and one was a naïve subject. When the shock apparatus reached 150 volts, one of the confederates stood up, announced he could not go on, and took a seat at the other end of the room. At the 210-volt level, the second confederate did the same thing. With both the confederates now refusing to go on and sitting on the other side of the room, the experimenter made strong efforts to get the third subject (the naïve subject) to continue alone. About 9 out of 10 people refused to obey under these circumstances.


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