. On the job, "conflict is a stubborn fact of organizational life" (, 311). Rather than seeing conflict as abnormal, (1992) suggests we view organizations as "arenas for staging conflicts, and managers as both fight promoters who organize bouts and as referees who regulate them" (259). Furthermore, Pondy asserts that in the company, agency, or small business, conflict may be the very essence of what the organization is about, and if "conflict isn't happening then the organization has no reason for being." One study surveyed workers and found that almost 85 percent reported conflicts at work (). And with an increasing awareness of cultural diversity and gender equity issues, it is imperative that we become familiar with issues surrounding promotions and harassment. In fact, one can see training in organizations as a form of preventive conflict management (). The recognition of the prevalence of conflict at work has led to books on conflict in the workplace (), showing how managers can learn conflict management skills to intervene in disputes in their organization.


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