Ethical theory, including virtue theory and Kantian deontology, is useful for thinking about how individuals should relateto each other in the context of business (cf. Rorty 2006). Butbusiness ethics also comprehends the laws and regulations thatstructure markets and organizations. And here political theory seemsmore relevant (see and cf. Moriarty 2005b; Phillips & Margolis1999). A number of business ethicists have sought to identify theimplications of Rawls’s (1971) justice as fairness—thedominant theory of justice in the English-speaking world—forbusiness. This is not an easy task, since while Rawlsmakes some suggestive remarks about markets and organizations, he doesnot articulate specific conclusions or develop detailed arguments forthem. But scholars have argued that justice as fairness: (1) isincompatible with significant inequalities of power and authoritywithin businesses (S. Arnold 2012); (2) requires people to have anopportunity to perform meaningful work (Moriarty 2009; cf. Hasan2015); and requires alternative forms of (3) corporate governance(Norman 2015; cf. Singer 2015) and (4) corporate ownership (M.O’Neill & Williamson 2012).


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