It is said that only later did the physical symbol come into use, being carved inside the helmets of Viking warriors, displayed on their front, or else impressions made of it on warrior foreheads using blood, saliva or lead stencils. I don’t know who said this, but it seems highly unlikely. I have not seen any evidence of it, and as already stated, galdrastafir became popular in the 17th century, way after the Viking period from roughly 800 AD to 1100 AD. What quotes I provide here are , which is not the same as historical fact. Stories that come from the Eddas are generally regarded as myth, whereas those from Icelandic sagas and other testamonies are embellished histories that be fact. There are no sagas that tell of any kind of face painting, however some rare testamonies do say Vikings had dark painted eyes and had tattoos.


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