Traditional gender differences in socialisation may well have disadvantaged females in education and employment ; and even if many nuclear families are gradually becoming more symmetrical women continue to take the main responsibility for housework and childcare while receiving relatively low level assistance from their male partners ; they may still concentrate disproportionately on the more difficult unpleasant tasks; they may be more heavily involved in draining emotion work; they may have less quality leisure time; and the division of power within the household may be relatively patriarchal and sometimes based ultimately on the use of male physical violence. The high proportions of "empty shell" marriages and the high rates of divorce suggest that family life in many cases far from symmetrical and harmonious and the Feminist criticisms of nuclear family life seems to help to explain why single parents may not choose to marry , why many opt for cohabitation rather than marriage for fear that a more "permanent" marriage may not work out and why the rate of divorce remains high even though it has fallen in the UK in 2005, 2006 and 2007


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