From Shakespeare’s subtle position on the effectiveness of the witches, one can infer that the witches do not have any impact on Macbeth’s actions, but rather inform him of the inevitable future. It is believed by many that Act 4, Scene 1, was written by an alternate author, as the perspective of the role of the witches is not that they are enablers of the inevitable, but that they meddle in the affairs of Macbeth and cause him to commit evil deeds.


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