Carroll's foundational article on social performance provided a three‐dimensional model defined by categories of CSR (economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary) on the first dimension, managerial philosophies or modes of social responsiveness (reaction, defense, accommodation, and proaction) on the second dimension, and the range of social issues that business must address (e.g., consumerism, environment, product safety) on the third dimension. Wartick and Cochran presented their evolution of the CSP model, which extended Carroll's model recasting his three dimensions of responsibility, responsiveness, and social issues into a framework of principles (using Carroll's four‐part definition of CSR), processes (social responsiveness—the general means to the ends of satisfying corporate social obligations), and policies (social issues management). They emphasized that CSP can integrate the three dominant orientations in the field of business and society: the philosophical orientation (relates primarily to the principles of social responsibility), the institutional orientation (relates primarily to the process of social responsiveness), and the organizational orientation (relates primarily to the policies of social issues management).


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