Tan wrote that the scholars who followed lost the true meaning of the teachings of and allowed rulers to use Confucianism to control the country. They added the four bonds that made the minister subordinate to the ruler, the son to the father, the wife to the husband, and the younger brother to the older brother. These relationships of authoritarian domination shackle people’s minds so that they are afraid to think or speak. The husband considers himself a master and so does not treat his wife as an equal. In ancient China the wife did not lose her right to be a master because she could ask for a divorce. The fifth Confucian relationship of friendship is the only one that is freely chosen and based on equality, making it most beneficial and least harmful. Tan commented that the ruler is not superior physically nor mentally, and yet he uses his power to oppress four hundred million people. Tan wrote, “If public affairs are not well managed, it is a universal principle that the ruler should be replaced.”2 He advocated a universal community with the moral idealism of , Mahayana Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism, and Christianity combined with the industrial commercialism of the modern West.


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