The equality required in the economic sphere is complex, takingaccount of several positions that — each according to thepresumption of equality — justify a turn away from equality. Asalient problem here is what constitutes justified exceptions to equaldistribution of goods — the main subfield in the debate overadequate conceptions of distributive equality and its currency. Thefollowing sorts of factors are usually considered eligible forjustified unequal treatment: (a) need or differing naturaldisadvantages (e.g. disabilities); (b) existing rights or claims(e.g. private property); (c) differences in the performance of specialservices (e.g. desert, efforts, or sacrifices); (d) efficiency; and(e) compensation for direct and indirect or structural discrimination(e.g. affirmative action).


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