The strength of this argument varies with its examples of purportedknowledge. Insofar as we focus on controversial claims in metaphysics,e.g., that God exists, that our mind is a distinct substance from ourbody, the initial premise that we know the claims is less thancompelling. Taken with regard to other areas, however, the argumentclearly has legs. We know a great deal of mathematics, and what weknow, we know to be necessarily true. None of our experiences warrantsa belief in such necessity, and we do not seem to base our knowledgeon any experiences. The warrant that provides us with knowledge arisesfrom an intellectual grasp of the propositions which is clearly partof our learning. Similarly, we seem to have such moral knowledge asthat, all other things being equal, it is wrong to break a promise andthat pleasure is intrinsically good. No empirical lesson about howthings are can warrant such knowledge of how they ought to be.


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