President Lincoln managed controversies over slavery in ways that sometimes mystified observers. He was particularly concerned to retain the loyalty of residents of Border States at the early part of the war and concerned that they take the lead in ending slavery as the war continued. With a constitutional amendment, President Lincoln wanted to assure that the Emancipation Proclamation would be permanent and universal in its application – that those slaves who had been freed would stay freed. Historian Philip S. Paludan said: “Interestingly, it was a slave-state senator, John Henderson of Missouri, who introduced the first emancipation amendment in January 1864. Although clear evidence is lacking, it would not be surprising if Lincoln had put him up to it, for the president continued to believe that border-state challenges to slavery would deal a heavy blow to the rebellion.”298 Indeed, Henderson and Lincoln had developed a close working relationship. After his reelection Lincoln worked to switch enough votes in the House of Representatives to assure passage. One Lincoln target was Missouri Congressman John Rollins. Rollins recalled how he was lobbied by a very engaged President Lincoln on behalf of the 13th Amendment:


Satisfied customers are saying