In the late 1960s the Ford Foundation and its corporate and foundation allies also became involved with community organizations that were trying to help inner-city neighborhoods in still other ways, such as by forcing slumlords to repair their buildings and city officials to clean up the streets and playgrounds. These organizations also found themselves searching for ways to negotiate the conflicts within white neighborhoods as African-Americans moved into them. Much of the initial focus of these efforts was on Chicago, where there was extreme tension between white ethnic neighborhoods and the burgeoning African-American population (from 278,000 and 8.2% of the city population in 1940 to 1,103,000 and 32.7% in 1970). There were also many organizers in that city, trained or inspired by Saul Alinsky's Industrial Areas Foundation, who were using his direct-action and door-to-door approach in several different neighborhoods, confronting slumlords at their homes, swarming into the offices of government officials, and blocking the entrances to corporate headquarters.


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